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    烏克蘭糧食生產正常,但是運不出去

    烏克蘭糧食生產正常,但是運不出去

    TRISTAN BOVE 2022-05-12
    烏克蘭的糧食儲存能力已達到極限,但世界其他國家卻面臨饑餓威脅。

    在俄烏沖突爆發并停止糧食出口之前,烏克蘭是世界上最大的糧食出口國之一,其收獲的小麥占世界總量的11%,玉米占17%。幾十年來,它一直被稱為歐洲糧倉。

    盡管俄羅斯軍隊封鎖了烏克蘭的港口,但該國的收成仍在繼續增加,大多數糧食都無法從烏克蘭運出。據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,現在,數百萬噸糧食滯留烏克蘭,該國的儲存能力已達到極限,但世界其他國家卻面臨饑餓威脅。

    聯合國糧食及農業組織經濟學家約瑟夫·史密賀伯(Josef Schmidhuber)表示,由于海港封鎖和基礎設施問題,目前有近2500萬噸糧食滯留烏克蘭,無法運出。

    在上周五的新聞發布會上,他警告說烏克蘭的“情況近乎怪誕”,谷物正按照常規時間表收割,但無法運出該國。

    史密賀伯表示:“[有]近2500萬噸糧食可以出口,但由于基礎設施問題和港口封鎖,這些糧食無法運出?!?/p>

    他澄清說,到目前為止,俄烏沖突并未對收成產生重大影響,但全球市場越來越難以獲得烏克蘭的糧食類大宗商品。

    史密賀伯解釋說,烏克蘭的大部分冬季作物都在該國西部種植和收獲,遠離俄烏沖突的沖擊,因此,俄烏沖突并未影響近期的收成。他補充說,按計劃,已經種植了約一半的夏季作物,但不確定能收獲多少。

    史密賀伯說:“未來可能會出現可觀的收成?!钡a充說,糧食運出烏克蘭的前景仍不確定,尤其是如果黑海港口仍被俄羅斯軍隊封鎖的話。

    數月來,烏克蘭船只一直被阻止離開黑海港口,聯合國世界糧食計劃署駐德國辦事處主任本周早些時候宣布,目前有近450萬噸糧食儲存在烏克蘭港口的集裝箱中,由于海上航線不安全或被占領而無法運出。

    據史密賀伯稱,烏克蘭的糧食運輸通常通過海運完成,但現在越來越頻繁地通過鐵路運出,他說這可能是極其復雜的。由于鐵路規格不同,例如一條軌道上的鐵軌之間寬度不同,通過火車運出糧食,有時需要卸載糧食并將糧食搬到新車廂上。

    據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,烏克蘭和俄羅斯是世界上一些主要農產品的最大供應國,包括小麥、油菜籽、玉米和葵花籽油。這些關鍵的全球供應鏈的中斷使得食品價格上漲,加劇了世界上一些最脆弱地區的饑餓問題。

    據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,還有一些報道稱俄羅斯軍隊一直在搶劫烏克蘭的糧食倉庫。

    史密賀伯表示:"有傳聞說,俄羅斯軍隊毀壞了倉庫,正在搶奪現有儲備糧。"他補充說,還有跡象表明俄羅斯軍隊也在偷竊農用設備,這可能會危及未來收成。

    他說:“糧食被俄羅斯偷走,并通過卡車運往俄羅斯?!?/p>

    俄烏沖突走向的不確定性,烏克蘭有限的糧食儲存能力以及俄羅斯軍隊一直在偷竊農用設備和破壞收成,意味著全球糧食價格——根據聯合國糧食及農業組織最新的月度食品價格指數,尤其是谷物和肉類的價格——仍然高度波動。

    在上周五發布的最新食品價格指數中,聯合國糧食及農業組織宣布,全球食品價格在上月大幅上漲后,4月份有所下降,但史密賀伯強調,這只是小幅下降而已。

    聯合國在4月份表示,全世界有4500萬人營養不良,還有多達2000萬人因戰爭而面臨饑荒的風險。據世界銀行稱,世界高度脆弱地區包括薩赫勒地區和西非國家,這些地區如果爆發戰爭的話,將加劇饑餓問題。(財富中文網)

    譯者:中慧言-王芳

    在俄烏沖突爆發并停止糧食出口之前,烏克蘭是世界上最大的糧食出口國之一,其收獲的小麥占世界總量的11%,玉米占17%。幾十年來,它一直被稱為歐洲糧倉。

    盡管俄羅斯軍隊封鎖了烏克蘭的港口,但該國的收成仍在繼續增加,大多數糧食都無法從烏克蘭運出。據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,現在,數百萬噸糧食滯留烏克蘭,該國的儲存能力已達到極限,但世界其他國家卻面臨饑餓威脅。

    聯合國糧食及農業組織經濟學家約瑟夫·史密賀伯(Josef Schmidhuber)表示,由于海港封鎖和基礎設施問題,目前有近2500萬噸糧食滯留烏克蘭,無法運出。

    在上周五的新聞發布會上,他警告說烏克蘭的“情況近乎怪誕”,谷物正按照常規時間表收割,但無法運出該國。

    史密賀伯表示:“[有]近2500萬噸糧食可以出口,但由于基礎設施問題和港口封鎖,這些糧食無法運出?!?/p>

    他澄清說,到目前為止,俄烏沖突并未對收成產生重大影響,但全球市場越來越難以獲得烏克蘭的糧食類大宗商品。

    史密賀伯解釋說,烏克蘭的大部分冬季作物都在該國西部種植和收獲,遠離俄烏沖突的沖擊,因此,俄烏沖突并未影響近期的收成。他補充說,按計劃,已經種植了約一半的夏季作物,但不確定能收獲多少。

    史密賀伯說:“未來可能會出現可觀的收成?!钡a充說,糧食運出烏克蘭的前景仍不確定,尤其是如果黑海港口仍被俄羅斯軍隊封鎖的話。

    數月來,烏克蘭船只一直被阻止離開黑海港口,聯合國世界糧食計劃署駐德國辦事處主任本周早些時候宣布,目前有近450萬噸糧食儲存在烏克蘭港口的集裝箱中,由于海上航線不安全或被占領而無法運出。

    據史密賀伯稱,烏克蘭的糧食運輸通常通過海運完成,但現在越來越頻繁地通過鐵路運出,他說這可能是極其復雜的。由于鐵路規格不同,例如一條軌道上的鐵軌之間寬度不同,通過火車運出糧食,有時需要卸載糧食并將糧食搬到新車廂上。

    據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,烏克蘭和俄羅斯是世界上一些主要農產品的最大供應國,包括小麥、油菜籽、玉米和葵花籽油。這些關鍵的全球供應鏈的中斷使得食品價格上漲,加劇了世界上一些最脆弱地區的饑餓問題。

    據聯合國糧食及農業組織稱,還有一些報道稱俄羅斯軍隊一直在搶劫烏克蘭的糧食倉庫。

    史密賀伯表示:"有傳聞說,俄羅斯軍隊毀壞了倉庫,正在搶奪現有儲備糧。"他補充說,還有跡象表明俄羅斯軍隊也在偷竊農用設備,這可能會危及未來收成。

    他說:“糧食被俄羅斯偷走,并通過卡車運往俄羅斯?!?/p>

    俄烏沖突走向的不確定性,烏克蘭有限的糧食儲存能力以及俄羅斯軍隊一直在偷竊農用設備和破壞收成,意味著全球糧食價格——根據聯合國糧食及農業組織最新的月度食品價格指數,尤其是谷物和肉類的價格——仍然高度波動。

    在上周五發布的最新食品價格指數中,聯合國糧食及農業組織宣布,全球食品價格在上月大幅上漲后,4月份有所下降,但史密賀伯強調,這只是小幅下降而已。

    聯合國在4月份表示,全世界有4500萬人營養不良,還有多達2000萬人因戰爭而面臨饑荒的風險。據世界銀行稱,世界高度脆弱地區包括薩赫勒地區和西非國家,這些地區如果爆發戰爭的話,將加劇饑餓問題。(財富中文網)

    譯者:中慧言-王芳

    Ukraine was one of the world’s largest exporters of grain before the Russian army invaded and halted grain exports, harvesting 11% of the world’s wheat and 17% of its corn. For decades, it’s been referred to as the breadbasket of Europe.

    In spite of Russian troops blockading Ukraine’s ports, the country’s harvest has continued, but most crops have been unable to leave Ukraine. Now, millions of tons of grain are sitting idle, and the country’s storage capacity is reaching its limits while the world gets hungrier, according to the UN’s top food agency.

    Nearly 25 million tons of grain are currently stuck in Ukraine and unable to leave the country due to obstructed seaports and infrastructural issues, said Josef Schmidhuber, an economist with the Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Speaking at a press briefing on Friday, he warned of an “almost grotesque situation” in Ukraine, in which grain is being harvested according to regular schedules, but cannot be taken out of the country.

    "[There are] nearly 25 million tonnes of grain that could be exported but that cannot leave the country simply because of lack of infrastructure, the blockade of the ports,” Schmidhuber said.

    He clarified that the war has so far not had a significant impact on harvests, but it is becoming harder and harder for global markets to access Ukraine’s food commodities.

    Schmidhuber explained that most of Ukraine’s winter crops were planted and harvested in the west of the country, far away from the brunt of the fighting and the war did not impact the recent harvest. He added that around half of the planned summer crops are already in the ground, although it is uncertain how much of it will be reaped.

    “A considerable crop could be coming in going forward,” Schmidhuber said, but added that the outlook for grains leaving Ukraine remained uncertain, especially if Black Sea ports remained blocked by Russian forces.

    Ukrainian ships have been blocked from leaving Black Sea ports for months, and the director of the UN World Food Programme in Germany announced earlier this week that almost 4.5 million tons of grain are currently sitting in containers in Ukrainian ports, unable to leave because of unsafe or occupied sea routes.

    Grain shipments from Ukraine are usually done by sea, according to Schmidhuber, but are now being taken out of the country by rail more and more frequently, something he said can be exceedingly more complicated. Grains leaving Ukraine by train can sometimes need to be unloaded and placed on new carriages due to different railway specifications, such as different widths between rails on a single track.

    Ukraine and Russia combined are some of the world’s largest suppliers of key agricultural commodities, including wheat, rapeseed, maize, and sunflower oil, according to the FAO. The disruption of these crucial global supply chains has raised food prices and exacerbated hunger issues in some of the world’s most vulnerable regions.

    There are also some reports that Russian troops have been looting Ukrainian grain storages, according to the FAO.

    “There is anecdotal evidence that Russian troops have destroyed storage capacity and are looting storage grain that is available,” Schmidhuber said, adding that there are also signs Russian troops have been stealing farm equipment as well, potentially putting the productivity of future harvests at risk.

    “Grain is being stolen by Russia and transported by trucks into Russia,” he said.

    The uncertainty about what direction the war will take, Ukraine’s limited storage capacity for grain, and evidence that Russian troops have been stealing and damaging harvests and farming equipment, means that global food prices—especially those for cereals and meats, according to the FAO’s latest monthly food price index—are still highly volatile.

    In its latest food price index, released on Friday, the FAO announced that global food prices decreased in April after a huge jump last month, but Schmidhuber stressed that it was only a small decline.

    The UN said in April that 45 million people worldwide suffer from malnourishment, with up to 20 million more at risk of famine because of the war. Highly vulnerable regions of the world where the war is expected to amplify hunger include countries in the Sahel and West Africa, according to the World Bank.

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